Indian Name: Jamun
Botanical Name: Syzygium cumini
Other Names: Eugenia Jambolana, Java plum, Jambul, duhat, black plum.
Eugenia Jambolana is better known a Jambul medicinal tree on which grow small fruit in black colour when ripened. Syzygiumcumini is its binomial or scientific name. It belongs to the Plantae Kingdom and comes from the Myrtales family with a Syzygium genus.
Synonyms used for this herb are Syzygium Jambolanum DC, Eugenia Cumini (L) Druce and Eugenia Jambolana Lam. The tree is native to Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Philippines and Pakistan. It is a tropical and an evergreen tree. The other names it is popularly known as are Portuguese Plum, Java Plum, Jambolan Plum, Jaam Jamblang, Kalojaam, Duhat Plum, Black Plum and Damson Plum. Syzyquim species of other kinds are also referred to as Malabar Plum.
The species grows fast up to a height of 30 meters. Life of the tree is around one hundred years. Fruit of the jambul tree are sought eagerly by native birds such as the Great Kiskadee, thrushes and tanagers. In Hawaii in the United it is an invasive species. Foliage is dense, thus providing shade. Its wood is resistant to water and strong.
The tree flowers from March to April, are small and fragrant. By June the fruits develop and from green, turn pink then a crimson black which has an astringent and mild sour and sweet taste. White fruit is produced by another variant tree.
In Philippines it is known as Duhat, in Telegu it is Neredu Pandu, in Kannada it is Nerale Hannu, in Malayalam it is Naaval Pazham. USDA in the year 1911 introduced the tree to Florida, United States and now it is grown in Tobago, Suriname and Trinidad.
The seed has healing properties and is used in Ayurveda to control diabetes. To treat ailments in the digestive system it is used in Chinese and Unani medicine. In the treatment of gingivitis, blood sugar control, the bark and leaves are used. From the fruit, which is rich in Vitamin C and Vitamin A, vinegar and wine is also made.
Nutrients contained are proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamin, riboflavin, vitamin A, thiamine, water, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin B and C, magnesium and pantothenic acid. It is by the emigrants from India that this medicinal tree has spread to other countries overseas.
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